시마노프스키: 교향곡 4번 op. 60 "심포닉 콘체르탄테"
- 장르: 교향곡
- 작곡가: 시마노프스키 (SZYMANOWSKI)
- 작품명: 교향곡 4번 op. 60 "심포닉 콘체르탄테" (Symphony No. 4 op. 60 "Symphonc Concertante")
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 Karol Szymanowski: “Adrift” between the traditional and progressive “Between eras may well have been a more exciting place to be than the midst of one”, wrote Hans-Klaus Jungheinrich in 1982 in the Frankfurter Rundschau – when the music of the “zones, breaches and seams between late Romanticism and modernity” were being discovered. He characterized the Polish composer Karol Szymanowski, born in 1882, as a “typical threshold artist, adrift between the traditional and progressive (or, better, empty territory)”. At first influenced by Wagner, Reger and Strauss, he associated himself with the literary movement known as “Young Poland”, yet always pursued his own distinctive path. He avoided incorporating folk elements into his music until relatively late in his career when they became a source of inspiration. Szymanowski’s last creative period (1921 – 1934) is thus often referred to as his “Polish” or “nationalist” phase.
The Symphony No. 4 for piano and orchestra Op. 60 was composed in 1932. Formally the work is a hybrid of (symphonic) piano concerto and symphony, as indicated by the subtitle “Sinfonia concertante”. The piano is treated at times as a solo instrument in the classical sense, at others as “only” an accompanist; other instruments are also given soloistic prominence. Szymanowski wrote the piano part with his own virtuosity in mind. His numerous performances of the work during his impoverished last years were among his few sources of income.
In a letter to the musicologist Zdzisław Jachimecki, Szymanowski provided some description of the Fourth Symphony: “1st movement (F major – 3/4 Alla moderato): close to sonata form (but not quite the same), in other words, first theme, subsidiary theme, second theme, shortened development and recapitulation; brief coda. The general mood is very cheerful, almost joyful… 2nd movement (4/4 Lento sostenuto). Extraordinarily lyrical, almost sentimental (beginning). A broad melody for solo flute, later solo violin – the piano really just accompanies. After that (the piano by now independent) the big crescendo and ff almost dramatic – then subsiding and, towards, the end, recall of 1st movement’s main theme. Complete transition to  Finale (3/8) Alla agitato – non troppo in the rhythm of an oberek [Polish folk dance]. One could find in it a loose analogy with rondo form. In the character of an extremely lively – at times almost orgiastic – dance. In the middle a brief episode (piano solo), a kind of mazurka (andantino), very ‘brillante’ coda. On the whole, the piano dominates, almost to the extent of a concerto (except for the beginning of the 2nd movement where for a moment it becomes an accompanying instrument). The scoring is classical (double woodwind, 4 horns, 3 trumpets and harp – much percussion, especially in the finale). The orchestration is very transparent – many sections for solo instruments (flute). The general character is – as you might say – very Polish.”
Helge Grünewald (번역: 고클래식)